Les Métamorphoses de la Commission du Danube (The Metamorphosis of the Danube Commission)

Une des premières organisations internationales, la Commission Européenne du Danube a été créée pour règlementer la navigation sur le Danube Maritime à une époque où le transport fluvial des marchandises revêtait une importance stratégique pour ses membres fondateurs. Actuellement, il est difficile de qualifier de stratégique l’activité de navigation fluviale. Pourtant, le transport de certaines marchandises sur le Danube présente encore un certain intérêt, notamment dans la proximité des ports maritimes de certains Etats riverains.

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Legal Implications Regarding the Use of Autonomous Weapons in Armed Conflicts and Law Enforcement Operations

Filip A. LARIU
The objective of this study is to emphasise the distinction between instances where autonomous weapons systems (AWS) are used. The article is structured on the dichotomy of law enforcement operations and armed conflict respectively, pointing out the differences in legal norms applied in each instance when autonomous weapons are used. While the technology is relatively new, there have been several authors, especially within the framework of international organisations, who have written on the subject. However, few, if any, have emphasised the parallels between International Humanitarian Law and International Human Rights Law with regards to the use of autonomous weapons systems. This study aims at stressing the importance of correctly classifying the circumstances where AWS are used and how these circumstances impact the legality of such use.

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Seeking Judicial Venues for the Persons Affected by the Sea-Level Rise

Adrian-Nicușor POPESCU
Climate change and especially sea-level rise are threatening the livelihoods of the persons living on the low-lying coastlines and are engendering the undesirable conditions for a future exodus. As recent reports have shown, sea-level rise is a very actual and problematic topic and important decisions must be made in the next years. If the recognition of the refugee status is not guaranteed, the persons affected by sea-level rise must find appropriate judicial venues to file complaints against those States that fail to reduce their contributions to climate change and affect their human rights. How complicated would it be to choose contentious procedures that require the proof of a strong causal link between the unlawful act and the damage, crystallized as rising sea levels? Is the request of an advisory opinion of the International Court of Justice a better option or filing complaints with the national judicial bodies? We considered that future climate change litigation and especially sea-level rise litigation should not be bypassed, as the international community made some strong commitments regarding the reduction of the anthropogenic influence on climate and, therefore, action must be taken to ensure that these commitments are respected and human rights are protected.

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