NO. 29 JANUARY – JUNE 2023

The Role of the International Maritime Organization in Securing the Black Sea in the Context of the Russo‑Ukrainian War*

Ioana-Roxana OLTEAN
After the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation in 2014, maritime safety in the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov became a major international challenge. After February 2022, the Russo-Ukrainian conflict disrupted maritime trade in the region, impairing shipping routes and port operations. The United Nations and International Maritime Organiation provided technical support to reduce the impact of the armed conflict, especially to allow the establishment of a humanitarian corridor and a safe corridor for the transportation of grain, related foodstuff, and fertilizer from Ukraine and Russia to international markets.

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Cultural Heritage in the Maritime Environment

Daniela-Anca DETEȘEANU
The seas and oceans of the world hide many resources and treasures, and not all of them come from nature. Thousands of wrecks still lie on the bottom of the sea, alongside countless objects of cultural and historical value. Just as it is essential to know how to manage and develop the natural resources of the maritime environment, it is equally important to learn about the legal status of the underwater cultural heritage, more specifically what States are and what they are not allowed to do with regard to the underwater heritage. This article shall try to briefly discuss these matters and whether a satisfying balance may be achieved between protecting the underwater heritage and exploiting the natural resources of the sea, given the most recent developments in science and technology.

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Overview of the European Union as a Sea Policy Actor

Mihaela-Augustina NIȚĂ
This article provides a concise overview of the European Union’s involvement in sea-related policies, covering maritime and marine policies, EU fisheries policy, environmental initiatives, blue growth strategy, and sea management practices. With Europe’s extensive coastline and a coastal population of 214 million within the EU, the significance of these policies is evident. The article traces the historical evolution of these policies, emphasizing the transition from the community method to intergovernmental approaches in recent maritime policy developments. Legal foundations, particularly for the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) and Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), highlighting the role of the European Parliament in legislation. The importance of EU-Member State collaboration in safeguarding marine ecosystems has also been tackled in this paper. The article underscores the EU’s significant role in sea-related policies, reflecting its commitment to responsible marine activities. It identifies policy challenges and suggests potential solutions, paving the way for a more integrated European approach to seas and oceans.

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Le Rôle de l’Union Européenne dans la Protection de la Mer Noire contre la Pollution et l’Éventuelle Adhésion à la Convention de Bucarest

Oana-Mihaela SALOMIA
À l’heure actuelle, l’adhésion de l’Union européenne à la Convention de Bucarest est-elle nécessaire et opportune? C’est une question qui reste d’actualité et qui interroge aussi sur l’application de la Convention par les Parties contractantes dans le contexte du conflit en Ukraine. L’analyse ci-dessous présente brièvement les compétences de l’Union européenne dans le domaine de l’environnement, le cadre juridique de l’adhésion à la Convention en tant que priorité de l’Union et le status-quo des relations entre les parties contractantes de la Convention et l’Union européenne comme élément d’actualité de la recherche qui n’a pas été encore pris en compte. Dans ce cadre, la démarche scientifique peut être développée pour intégrer l’image de la mer Noire après-guerre et la potentielle nouvelle position de l’Union par rapport à la Convention.

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Immunity as a Circumstance Excluding the Operation of the Obligation to Extradite or Prosecute – Part III: The Effects of Immunities on the Obligation to Extradite or Prosecute

Filip A. LARIU
This article concludes a trilogy examining the interaction between the immunities of state officials and the obligation to extradite or prosecute. It focuses on the manner in which personal and functional immunities impact this obligation. Through doctrinal and comparative legal research, it addresses key questions, such as whether aut dedere aut judicare is a procedural bar or a substantial defence, and whether immunities apply in respect to international crimes. Additionally, the study delves into immunity waiver, suggesting implicit waivers via treaties as a solution to reconcile the conflict between the obligation to extradite or prosecute and the obligation to observe immunities.

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Tide of Destiny: The Forthcoming Advisory Opinion of the International Court of Justice and its Potential Impact on the Future of Small Island States

This article will briefly analyze the recent developments regarding the request made by the United Nations General Assembly for an Advisory Opinion from the International Court of Justice on the 29th of March 2023, as well as succinctly examine the legal challenges posed by sea-level rise and climate change affecting small island States more broadly. The questions we will explore in this article are: What are States’ obligations de lege lata regarding their actions leading to a global rise in sea levels due to their effects on climate change? What are the potential implications of the upcoming ICJ advisory opinion? What are the consequences of partial or complete territorial loss caused by climate change for States?

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